Fatigue is caused by multiple causes, the most important relate to the decrease in cortico-motor arousal and physiological changes in the muscle fibers of the heart and skeletal muscle. Psychological fatigue in many cases is due to chronic stress and in this case the levels of the hormone cortisol are increased.
Weekend athletes (sedentary during the week), sometimes abuse their cardiorespiratory capacity and have boosted immune system, so they are more susceptible to injury.
You need to be aware if the following symptoms of extreme fatigue or pain to appear:
– Pain in chest, arms (angina).
– Confusion, headache. Nausea and vomiting.
– Hyperthermia, 41,5º than rectal measurement and altered mental status.
– Muscle cramps and pains in legs.
– Hyponatremia with normal temperature.
– Pale by poor peripheral circulation.
– Difficulty breathing or running out of breath during exercise.
– Excessive palpitations, tachycardia (angina).
– Prolonged fatigue (lasting discomfort over 24 h).
– Insomnia (poor recovery of the heart).
– Fluid retention (weight gain due to poor recovery of the heart).
– If signs of dehydration are present with cardiovascular instability, such as sunken eyes or inability to spit.
The practice of strenuous exercise (more than 75% according to the person .; VO2max) long, causes acute but transient inflammation and oxidative stress may result if the free radicals that are produced are not neutralized by the antioxidant system. This transient inflammation (between 3-24 h.) After strenuous exercise causes a depression of the immune system that makes the athlete more vulnerable to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections during this time window occurs.
By contrast, the regular practice of moderate exercise (about 60 VO2max.); provides strengthening the immune system and antioxidant system due to over-compensation for the year. The also active on the expression of hundreds of genes intense exercise. These genes are involved in the production of pro / anti-inflammatory and stress proteins; and activation of growth factors and angiogenesis. The levels of cytokines activated time dependent: more pro-inflammatory during the year and more growth factors and anti-inflammatory after exercise and recovery phase.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in particular) and stress proteins are required for phase recovery and repair of damaged tissues by exercise; but if left unchecked inflammation continue to damage other healthy tissues of the athlete and are harmful to your health. The same applies in case of oxidative stress.
According to http://mirenadetox.com/mirena-side-effects/ Inflammation is a “double edged sword” as it eliminates pathogenic cells (bacteria, viruses, cancer cells), but if there is an exacerbation or inflammation continues over the account, removes and destroys its own tissues as well (such as gonads and thyroid).
Therefore if the recovery after exercise is correct, the anti-inflammatory IL-1ra citoqunas, IL10, tissue growth factors and other dampen inflammation; once they have been eliminated microdamage produced and replenished after damaged cells.
Interestingly, the involvement in the regulation of inflammation, which is performed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex (HPA), where there are receptors for cytokines IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a released in inflammation that activate the HPA axis generating over hormone production (corticotropin releasing (CRH), which causes consequent lowering glucocorticoid production inflammation and suppress the immune system. One such glucocorticoid is cortisol hormone stress. When chronic stress is harmful. Is it harmful to add to the stress of work and real life of strenuous exercise.
Besides the strenuous exercise, some pathological situations (food allergies, obesity, eating disorders and gastrointestinal tract), cause changes in the immune system as a result of impaired nutritional status of the body, giving immunological abnormalities in different physiological and pathological conditions associated states of malnutrition.
The intense and prolonged exercise requires the consumption of large quantities of oxygen up to twenty times the general expenditure at rest and up to one hundred times the expenditure in muscle fibers used in addition due to breakage of the muscle fibers, heat stress and ischemia product of intense exercise, occurs in muscle tissue and a significant increase in neutrophils free radical. In the short term these free radicals (ROS) can not be neutralized by anti-oxidants generated by the body, so that the oxidative stress occurs. Oxidative stress that can damage DNA in leukocytes and can oxidize lipids, proteins or other molecules in the membranes; thereby causing cell damage.
Fortunately ROS act in turn triggering an intracellular signaling complex that triggers various cellular actions: increase of antioxidant enzymes that enhance the antioxidant system and restore redox homeostasis. All this depends on the cell type and the conditions under which oxidative stress occurs.
To keep the immune system (IS) and the antioxidant system in good condition, it is important to take a balanced diet with plenty of antioxidant vitamins (A, C, E), glutamine, minerals like zinc and selenium, probiotics and meet energy requirements. The effects of dietary antioxidants include decreased production of lactic acid in maximal exercise test, which means less suffering for the sportsman.
Physical and psychological recovery is therefore an essential part after prolonged exercise.
The psychological recovery is achieved with relaxation and rest.
Physical recovery improves with massage, stretching, good nutrition and hydration, to get faster:
Recovery of the damaged tissue injury and oxidative stress,
-Allow Cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal development and increase the specific performance
-Training Adequate energy reserves (adenosine triphosphate, phosphocreatine, glycogen, lipids, proteins).
So for a healthy exercise program is essential to a good individualized training, good diet and emotional intelligence to manage stress.
For any doubt always consult your Doctor and Pharmacist