Guide to buying an electric bike

We want to share some of the knowledge we have learned from our experience over the years. We hope you find it useful and I know they can always email us with your questions to us.

It is relatively easy to compare traditional bikes together, for reading the specifications or just looking bikes you can see what the differences are and where the money goes. With electric bikes or xe đạp điện in Vietnamese , the differences are not so obvious because it has electronic parts. Is something like buying a car or a motorcycle.

It takes years to truly understand all the technologies used in e-bikes and the interaction between them, and how they affect the experience of riding an electric bicycle.

The performance of an electric bike is not only down to whether or not employ the latest technology in batteries. It is a combination of battery chemistry, electronic controller, the core composition engine, wiring and connectors used, the degree of quality of all materials, system efficiency and attention to detail factory.

One may be surprised by how power is integrated with your driving style when energy enters the engine, when cut, or soft or aggressively happens in both cases. Are the gears properly adapted to the power and to its intended use?

For example, if you have knee problems and ride an electric bike with cadence sensor and a high development (chain on the smallest sprocket) it can be very hard since the started pedaling with no fluid enough for the sensor pedaling send the signal to the controller to boot attendance.

In addition, changing gears, need to be already in motion … This does not necessarily mean that people with knee problems can not use an electric bike speed sensor , moreover, can be advantageous when lower gears are used as the engine will deliver its full power pedaling applying minimal pressure and, hence freeing the knee voltage. It is very important that the manufacturer has thought about the practical aspects of its design and programmed control unit accordingly.

There are so many electric bikes on the market that can be difficult to choose between different makes and models. Adding to the confusion many brands of electric bikes have models that look identical and very similar specifications, but very different in price and performance. As if that were not enough, we often encounter with features that, on paper, are not very realistic.

Another difficulty is that the electrical components for bicycles are not standardized, as components for traditional bicycles. This means that if you can not buy a piece through your dealer , probably can not easily get anywhere else.

Europe is home to some of the largest companies in the world and more powerful bikes. Very few, like Sparta, were pioneers of electric bikes, most are just entering the market power and in our tests, some known bicycle brands have not gone very benefit.

It can be said that without understanding very well electric bikes, managers of big brands have managed to play a clever hand. They have chosen to say electrical systems, standard, leaving the main argument decision to buy a bike, bicycle components, some what better understood.

This is convenient for businessmen, but restricts consumer choice. At fairs Bicycle 2011/2012 we have seen almost all brands of traditional bicycles, either with a Panasonic , Bosch or systems BionX.  So the only thing left to select a new ebike is the style and components bicycle.

Can three drive systems meet the needs of all consumers? From our experience and our customers know we do not.

Most publications are influenced by advertisers and authors of many of them have never seen the bike on which to write. Feel safe defending big brands. This often leads to a lackluster ebike is announced as the best. There really is no “best e-bike “because driving styles and performance vary so dramatically that each client needs to try several products to find what best fits your needs.

We hope this guide will serve them for this purpose.

Legal : First, we must be clear what an electric bicycle pedaling asistitido for legal purposes and distinguish electric mopeds. The former do not need insurance or driving license and are, for legal purposes, exactly like a traditional bike. To be considered as such a pedal assist electric bike must meet certain characteristics.

  • The engine must not exceed 250W rated power.
  • The maximum speed that can reach should not exceed 25 km / h .
  • The engine can only be activated while pedaling and must stop automatically when the cyclist stops pedaling or engage the parking brake.
  • The bicycle as a whole must not weigh more than 40 kg .
These are the main requirements for a pedal assist electric bike complies with  Directive 2002/24 / EC .

Comfort : It’s very important when making such a large investment. If you are not comfortable on a bike, it will not use or at least not leverage its full potential. When a person feels comfortable in yourebike and therefore safe, these products can totally change your mindset about local transportation.

Security : Closely related to the feeling when riding and how power is integrated with the driving style and terrain. Some bicycles pedelec need one or two turns of pedals before the pedaling assisting the engine, and therefore may be harder starting.

On the other hand, some electric bikes are very aggressive from the start and can be difficult to control in tight spaces.
Maintenance : The ability to properly maintain the product is paramount. Too many e-bikes that are designed to offer an attractive image and not to provide a long service life at low cost.

Most systems acclaimed ” crank drive “with the engine shaft bottom bracket work with all components in a single sealed unit. Such systems are quite nice and tidy, but …. if one component fails, we must replace the entire unit with a great cost. We must emphasize all aspects of a product to ensure that each customer makes the best purchasing decision for yourself, analyzing the advantages and potential disadvantages.

Another critical point for electric bikes are the brake levers. In traditional bicycle brake lever always spoil. They are the first thing that touches the ground when the bike, or wall or other bikes to park them fall. The same applies to electric bicycles, except that this often results in that the electronic switch is damaged brake lever and the consequent outage permanently. In most electric bikes we see these switches are not easy to replace, so it’s something worth considering when different bikes are compared.
Reliability : The reliability of an e-bike depends on the quality of each the components used in their manufacture. When purchasing a e-bike most of us have a budget in mind, and from there, our goal is to get as much inside. However, the old adage “you get what you pay for” is not always true here. We’ve seen a lot of very expensive electric bikes that have serious quality problems. In our experience, a less expensive electric bike can be very reliable if not regularly expose extreme situations (electrical and mechanical). For example, if you live in a mountainous place, you may have to spend a little more to find a bike that will pave the outstanding reliably for many years.

So how do you choose where to spend your money and make sure you get what you expected? In this regard, it is important to learn a little about the important features of an electric bike.

Weight:  The weight of an electric bike is essential for its operation, plus there are legal limitations thereon (see Rules and Regulations ). The heaviest parts of an electric bike is the battery box and the motor.

Table : The lightweight frames are almost always good, unless you intend to make “trips off-road “or descent because, usually, a light box sometimes sacrifices flexibility and endurance.

– Aluminum alloy 6061: good for use ” off-road “moderate and city.

– Aluminum alloy 7005: good for road bikes and urban use.

– Steel: good for heavy use. Super resistant. Much heavier than aluminum.

Battery: Every time they are coming to market lighter batteries that offer the same autonomy that heavier. This topic will detail later.

Motor : It is the component that provides the turning force to assist the pedaling.
Thanks to constant improvements engines are getting smaller, but like any tech product, are more expensive. The engines have better materials, lighter weight and size and shrinking, while still providing the same power.

Delve into these last two aspects in the next issue.

Enhanced by Zemanta

MOTOR

There are mainly two types of motors used in electric bicycles . All have their pros and cons:

  1. Brush motors : These motors have very good press. Are larger, heavier and noisier than their counterparts brushless addition, although quite economical, maintenance free. However, if one takes into account that the motor can run to 20,000 km maintenance and, after maintenance, the engine will continue running like new, your prospect can begin to change. Therefore, we can say that the brush motors have proven to be a solid choice at a lower price.

  1. DC brushless motors or BLDC : also known as brushless . They are smaller, lighter and certainly quieter than brushed motors. The technical differences are not as important as the relative performance in different applications and truth are the best choice for e-bikes in recent years, although a good motor with brushes can be more robust in demanding circumstances and can be best climbers to the given power.

Brushless Motor 8FUN

Since the introduction of the hub motors without sensors, there has been a significant improvement in the reliability of these motors. Effect sensors Hall are no longer necessary because the position of the armature can be detected by EMF or by detecting the magnetic field, and this reduces the necessary electronics on board motor, improving reliability.

Brushless motors have a linear power response speed, which means that the maximum torque is available from the start in stop and reduces smoothly through acceleration.

Motor power

Something that is not often mentioned is the efficiency of a motor. What power we are talking about when we ask 200Watts or 250watts, is the power input or output?

When a current is applied to a motor, it rotates with a measurable force Nm. The more efficient an engine with more force (Nm) rotate to a given input power. Efficiency, therefore, is given by the difference between input power and output power.

In other words, the efficiency of an engine which indicates amount of energy received by the motor is converted into movement of our electric bike . Always be some power due to resistance in the copper coils, the resistance between the magnetic fields, and because the harmonics generated when the engine is running.

The efficiency is a factor that explains the differences in performance in some electric bikes with the same specifications.

Ideally engine medium-low power consumption (from 200 to 500Watts) is accompanied by a high peak power, for example 1.5Kw. Thus, they have the necessary power without creating high energy demands could damage the battery or wiring.

Peak power is the maximum power output of an engine can reach for a few seconds.

Position of engine

There are basically two engine positioning options

  1. HUB Engines

Delia's EG Electric Bike

The HUB those engines are coupled to the wheel hub. The vast majority of electric bikes use these engines.

These are the main advantages of an engine of this type:

  • The engine is placed in a space that was wasted in the design of conventional bicycles.

  • Installation is very easy as evidenced by the huge amount of conversion kits flooding the market.

  • They are fairly simple, thus reducing the total cost of the vehicle.

  • They are mostly sealed and maintenance free.

  • The motor is directly connected to the driving wheel, which improves efficiency.

  • The center of gravity is relatively low, maintaining a good balance.

  • Attractive image.

  • Easy access for repair or replacement, without any other component is affected.

  • Being easy to replace, allows we always open the door to upgrade your bike with the best and latest technologies.

  • If the HUB motor is placed in the front wheel, the bike will have two drive wheels as pedaling the back is turned.

However, we can also find some drawbacks:

  • To be sealed against water and dirt removing heat generated by the motor can be problematic. Fortunately, many drivers manage engine temperature.

  • Wheel weight is added.

  • There are hundreds of central engine manufacturers and they all look the same, but very few actually offer great performance.

  1. Motors located on the axis BB

Panasonic and Yamaha are betting heavily on this type of system, whose sales have soared in Europe but not both USA.

We can identify the main advantages of this system:

  • The motor may be smaller because the housing allows the heat is released more effectively.
  • The engine is usually in the bottom of the shaft bottom bracket lowering the center of gravity of the bicycle.
  • The engine can stay close to their optimum operating point using the gearshift of the bicycle.
  • Using the shifting of the bicycle, these motors can provide more effective assistance pending the HUB engines, to equal power.
  • By using low power, reliability is improved.

Also here we have disadvantages:

  • Units are always sealed and contain almost all of the components: the engine torque sensor and controller. This means that if a component fails, the whole system has to be replaced.

  • Each system is patented, so if spare parts are not available will be very expensive adapt the measure from one system to another.

  • The output power and therefore, the performance is limited by the strength of the chain and sprocket. Standard pinions and chains were designed to human transmission through pedaling, which means that the amount of mechanical energy that can be added is relatively small.

  • Because of this, maintenance of the drive chain will increase, including all gears and pinions.

BATTERY

Batteries are electrochemical components and have their own, say, “personality”. It is almost impossible to find two identical behavior batteries. Although two people the same model are purchasedelectric bike at the same time, they can have completely different experiences with their batteries.

We have studied the whole theory on batteries (that can keep one busy for a long, long time), but the most useful information has come from our customers. Often, the information provided by laboratory tests can not replace it emerges from the experience of end users with their batteries.

The industry of electric bicycle has been waiting to become an important enough to allow more efficient technologies batteries are offered at reasonable prices sector. This is already beginning to happen.

A battery is not only a solid piece, is a collection of “cells”. The cells are complete units electrolyte with an anode, a cathode and produce electricity from a chemical reaction.

Each type of cell has a nominal voltage. For example, NiMH (nickel metal hydride) is about 1.2 volts per cell, and thus need a lot of cells combined to obtain the voltage used in an electric motor. Thus, 30 cells would get approximately 36 volts, thus obtaining a useful voltage.

 How the measured capacity of a battery?

 Usually when someone asks about the capacity of a battery, is looking for basically two things: (1) the amount of energy stored in the battery cells (? How far I can go); and (2) what current cell rate (how much power and how fast?) are discharged

The amps are the most common to describe the amount of stored electricity in the cells form. The ability of a cell in ampere / hour (Ah) is also full battery capacity in Ah. A cell 7 Amp is 7 Ah to 1.2 volts. With the example above would need 30 of them to obtain the required voltage, but would still only 7 Ah useful energy to that voltage.

To put it another way, more Ah, we go further and faster. However, more Ah cost more money, and weigh more.

When we read Wh (watt / hour) on battery specifications, we are more or less to what we have been explaining about Ah, but in this case the voltage is also considered. For example, a battery of 360 Wh is only 10 Ah battery to 36 volts (36V 10Ah x = 360Wh).

Maximum current means essentially “what is the maximum download speed of a cell?”. Think of it as a bucket of water. The hub is the cell and water is electricity (the larger the cell, the greater the amount of water), where the water leaves through a hole in the hub. Thus, the larger the hole, the faster will the water.

In terms of battery, if the download (the hole) is not large enough, then the engine may not be able to get enough energy (water) to operate with maximum performance.

The measuring unit is described in terms of maximum amperage that can support cell per unit time. Another way to describe it in terms of “C” or what is the same, the rate at which the battery can be discharged for one hour = 1C. For example, if the battery discharge 10 amps for one hour means you will have a maximum current of 10Ah to 1C.

Problems in construction of batteries :

Most consumer batteries electronics utilize a handful of cells. For example, a battery of a mobile phone of 3.6 volts, may have three NiMH batteries at 1.2 V battery in a plastic box. The electric bikes , usually no more than 30 merged cells. Each cell is connected to another with a small metal connector. Each connector is a potential point of mechanical failure, and a small resistance.

Battery types

  1. Lead Acid (SLA)

Pros : average energy density, maintenance, proven in millions of electric, cheap bikes.

Cons : heavy batteries, very short life cycles, no fast load option and not easy storage.

  1. Nickel (NiMH and NiCd)

Pros : average energy density, relatively fast loading, average weight.

Cons : suffer from memory, slashing performance at low temperatures, difficult storage effect.

  1. Litio ion (Li-ion)

There are numerous types of Lithium. It is essential to know one needs to avoid mistakes when choosing a battery, otherwise you may not get the performance you expect. In addition, improper use of the battery may lead to a shorter life cycle, with the costs that entails.

Here’s where it gets really interesting theme, so you have some basic knowledge required to understand the role of chemistry in different Lithium:

Lithium batteries are formed by two parts: the anode and cathode. Energy is released when the ions (in this case, lithium ions, Li) move from the anode (positive) to the cathode (negative) through the electrolyte. Anode is usually graphite, the electrolyte is usually a lithium salt solution. Improvements in this field of chemistry occur primarily within the material it is made ​​the cathode. Some of them are: Lithium Manganese LiMn2O4, Lithium Nickel Cobalt Manganese LiNiMnCoO2 (NCM) , Lithium Manganese Cobalt LiMnCo , ferrous or Lithium Iron Phosphate LiFePO4 .

Pros: light weight, high energy density, durable, maintenance free, fast charge and can be stored. Also have over 500 recharging cycles until 2000 in the case of LiFePO4 life.

Cons: expensive, may be unstable, the cells suffer shit and downloads at different rates may jeopardize the orderly functioning of the battery.

  1. Lithium Polymer (Li-Po)

Pros: It is one of the available lighter batteries with a very high density of cargo, maintenance, fast loading, high stability demonstrated in tests extreme laboratory, speed low self-discharge, can be stored if precautions are taken, range operating temperature.

Cons: expensive, will suffer if stored incorrectly, you may suffer thermal runaway and represent a fire hazard if charged after a period of improper storage or if the BMS has failed catastrophically.

* For months, the emergence of Li-NCM developed by manufacturers like Samsung are pushing the market to other lithium chemistries for high charge density which reaches 200Wh / Kg, which means, comparing with LiFePO4, reduced to half the weight and volume of the battery to store the same load. Our electric bike or xe dap dien  Bolt trekin is equipped with this type of battery.

CONTROLLER

Are the brain’s electric bike – xe đạp điện, determine how much electricity flows from the battery to the motor by regulating its proper functioning. Internally usually a chip of about 10cm x 6cm protected by an aluminum housing.

The brushless DC (BLDC) require a driver to turn the engine and not worth a simply switch.

The controller determines the following:

  • When entering the engine to attend

  • Much Aid provides engine

  • Speed ​​(maximum)

  • The outage undervoltage / voltage or high temperature in the engine or battery (advanced and sensor)

  • Energy recovery function during braking (reverse battery)

  • Help to start at 6 km / h (maximum allowed by law to use the throttle and no pedaling)

For an electric bicycle is considered as such in EU, the engine can only help while pedaling. To ensure this, there are several technical solutions:

  1. The torque sensor / par :  is a sensor that detects the force exerted by the driver on the chain through the pedal stroke. The stronger the greater pedaling support received from the motor.Disadvantage: tends to a cadence (pedaling speed) slow heavy, and therefore unhealthy.

  1. Cadence : here the motion sensor detects the speed of rotation of the cranks. The faster spin, gives the engine more assistance. Disadvantage: The pedaling slowly have very little support and have to get used to go on a 80 RPM or increase the number of magnets available in the magnetic sensor disk to simulate increased rate.

Sound drivers simply have a rotating motion detection, ie, the motion sensor on the crank (bottom bracket to be exact) only detects rotating and then gives 100% attendance, or allows use d eun accelerator or a manual switch between manual 3-6 speeds, which is enabled only by pedaeleo him as saying.

Finally it is important to distinguish between motor controllers with and without Hall sensors: the first are gentler on departures from 0km / h especially when it comes 250W engines without gears; others in changes are more reliable and consume less power once launched.

Moderate cycling is healthy; ceases to be strenuous

Fatigue is caused by multiple causes, the most important relate to the decrease in cortico-motor arousal and physiological changes in the muscle fibers of the heart and skeletal muscle. Psychological fatigue in many cases is due to chronic stress and in this case the levels of the hormone cortisol are increased.

Weekend athletes (sedentary during the week), sometimes abuse their cardiorespiratory capacity and have boosted immune system, so they are more susceptible to injury.

You need to be aware if the following symptoms of extreme fatigue or pain to appear:

– Pain in chest, arms (angina).

– Confusion, headache. Nausea and vomiting.

– Hyperthermia, 41,5º than rectal measurement and altered mental status.

– Muscle cramps and pains in legs.

– Hyponatremia with normal temperature.

– Pale by poor peripheral circulation.

– Difficulty breathing or running out of breath during exercise.

– Excessive palpitations, tachycardia (angina).

– Prolonged fatigue (lasting discomfort over 24 h).

– Insomnia (poor recovery of the heart).

– Fluid retention (weight gain due to poor recovery of the heart).

– If signs of dehydration are present with cardiovascular instability, such as sunken eyes or inability to spit.

The practice of strenuous exercise (more than 75% according to the person .; VO2max) long, causes acute but transient inflammation and oxidative stress may result if the free radicals that are produced are not neutralized by the antioxidant system. This transient inflammation (between 3-24 h.) After strenuous exercise causes a depression of the immune system that makes the athlete more vulnerable to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections during this time window occurs.

By contrast, the regular practice of moderate exercise (about 60 VO2max.); provides strengthening the immune system and antioxidant system due to over-compensation for the year. The also active on the expression of hundreds of genes intense exercise. These genes are involved in the production of pro / anti-inflammatory and stress proteins; and activation of growth factors and angiogenesis. The levels of cytokines activated time dependent: more pro-inflammatory during the year and more growth factors and anti-inflammatory after exercise and recovery phase.

Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in particular) and stress proteins are required for phase recovery and repair of damaged tissues by exercise; but if left unchecked inflammation continue to damage other healthy tissues of the athlete and are harmful to your health. The same applies in case of oxidative stress.

According to http://mirenadetox.com/mirena-side-effects/ Inflammation is a “double edged sword” as it eliminates pathogenic cells (bacteria, viruses, cancer cells), but if there is an exacerbation or inflammation continues over the account, removes and destroys its own tissues as well (such as gonads and thyroid).

Therefore if the recovery after exercise is correct, the anti-inflammatory IL-1ra citoqunas, IL10, tissue growth factors and other dampen inflammation; once they have been eliminated microdamage produced and replenished after damaged cells.

Interestingly, the involvement in the regulation of inflammation, which is performed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex (HPA), where there are receptors for cytokines IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a released in inflammation that activate the HPA axis generating over hormone production (corticotropin releasing (CRH), which causes consequent lowering glucocorticoid production inflammation and suppress the immune system. One such glucocorticoid is cortisol hormone stress. When chronic stress is harmful. Is it harmful to add to the stress of work and real life of strenuous exercise.

Moderate cycling is healthy;  ceases to be strenuous

Besides the strenuous exercise, some pathological situations (food allergies, obesity, eating disorders and gastrointestinal tract), cause changes in the immune system as a result of impaired nutritional status of the body, giving immunological abnormalities in different physiological and pathological conditions associated states of malnutrition.

The intense and prolonged exercise requires the consumption of large quantities of oxygen up to twenty times the general expenditure at rest and up to one hundred times the expenditure in muscle fibers used in addition due to breakage of the muscle fibers, heat stress and ischemia product of intense exercise, occurs in muscle tissue and a significant increase in neutrophils free radical. In the short term these free radicals (ROS) can not be neutralized by anti-oxidants generated by the body, so that the oxidative stress occurs. Oxidative stress that can damage DNA in leukocytes and can oxidize lipids, proteins or other molecules in the membranes; thereby causing cell damage.

Fortunately ROS act in turn triggering an intracellular signaling complex that triggers various cellular actions: increase of antioxidant enzymes that enhance the antioxidant system and restore redox homeostasis. All this depends on the cell type and the conditions under which oxidative stress occurs.

To keep the immune system (IS) and the antioxidant system in good condition, it is important to take a balanced diet with plenty of antioxidant vitamins (A, C, E), glutamine, minerals like zinc and selenium, probiotics and meet energy requirements. The effects of dietary antioxidants include decreased production of lactic acid in maximal exercise test, which means less suffering for the sportsman.

 

Physical and psychological recovery is therefore an essential part after prolonged exercise.

 

The psychological recovery is achieved with relaxation and rest.

 

Physical recovery improves with massage, stretching, good nutrition and hydration, to get faster:

 

Recovery of the damaged tissue injury and oxidative stress,

 

-Allow Cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal development and increase the specific performance

 

-Training Adequate energy reserves (adenosine triphosphate, phosphocreatine, glycogen, lipids, proteins).

 

So for a healthy exercise program is essential to a good individualized training, good diet and emotional intelligence to manage stress.

For any doubt always consult your Doctor and Pharmacist

 

Choosing a cycling personal trainer

I place the athlete relationship / coach to the basic programming of the drive. Without a relationship of trust and exchanges frankly, it is impossible to propose an optimal progression.
This is why I propose an individualized and personalized attention. Must be adapted sessions to suit your requirements (professional life, familly life goals …). Your training plan must be tailored to your schedule to avoid poor recovery and thus poor performance.

To enable tracking, you have different ways to stay in touch with your Top Personal Trainer in Sarasota: mail, telephone or mail.

You can ask for clarification on the content of a training plan to include some sessions.

You can ask to change your current plan on an unexpected cycle.

You can also ask for legal help from your coach if you do not feel the effects of your workouts.

He then steps to implement:

Studying professional and social constraints
Studying sporting career and habitutes drive
Secure with coach achievable goals and a provisional timetable
Making a specific training plan
Adapter to the unexpected
Making a balance sheet at the end of planning

The route of drugs in cycling

The UCI took the tip of a ball of doping in sport pedal lifetime sanctioned Lance Armstrong and withdrew won seven tour

Listen Willy, you’d better go on back roads, “was the first tip. The year was 1998 when the Festina team doctor made ​​the recommendation to the assistant Willy Voet. Why worry if Voet simply wearing material destined port of Calais at the start of the Tour de France, that started that year from Dublin? The car was a bomb. The traveling bag 400 doses of illegal products, especially EPO, the queen then, the magical potion undetectable. But Voet understood it was a formality. “What I was going to pass. We thought we were untouchable! It could go 200 kilometers on a highway and you salvabas giving him a jersey (shirt) the policeman on duty, “he said at the time the daily As. And made ​​the trip this July 8, the day before the Tour. In Neuville-en-Ferrain , a town on the French-Belgian border, was waiting crouched customs police. They went straight to the bag. They found the arsenal: EPO 200 ampoules, nearly 100 of growth hormone and testosterone dozen boxes. The equivalent strength and oxygen capsules. Voet was arrested. And hunting in what might be called the Die Potenzmittel kamagra, Sidalis, Hard on 120, Oral Jelly, super p force und Sidalis ohne Rezept bestellen began. Festina case that resulted in police lock-ups stuffed french open. As they marched cyclists, medical directors and Festina. Questioned.Treated as drug traffickers. Eco, Magic Potion How does EPO and why is not detected is the big question? Autotransfusion or EPO injections filled the bloodstream. Raise the hematocrit is the percentage of blood in the veins. Without exceeding the legal limit, 50%. But they have a side effect: the body reacts and stops producing these cells on their own. At that point stop doping controls. When they discover that an athlete tests stopped creating cells, light alarms. The detection method is Australian: measures the amount of reticulocytes, young red blood cells. If not, suspect. Of course, for every law there is a catch. The micro doses of EPO. The doctors believe that cheaters are undetectable.Its footprint disappears soon. So if 2000 units of EPO injected before, now reach 200. A drop in the blood stream. Although sufficient to arouse the production of red blood cells. And it confuses the controls. The fact is that the scandal that began in 1998 appears to have ended Monday with the lifetime ban the American cyclist Lance Armstrong, who gouged won all tours.Since then the bike was not the same. The shadow of doping always flew in all competitions. In 1999, several of the Mapei team cyclists were arrested; Vandenbroucke appeared implicated in a plot of doping and Pantani was expelled from Giro that was won by overcoming the rate of hematocrit. In 2001 the Giro became crazy records; Dario Frigo was expelled, and appeared a syringe with insulin in Pantani’s room. In 2002, Garzelli, leader of the Giro, tested positive. The Tour that year, Rumsas wife was arrested with a cargo of dopants. In the Vuelta 2004, Hamilton and Santiago Pérez fell through blood transfusion. A year later came the positive EPO Heras. In 2006 Operation Puerto doping found curled around Euphemianus doctor Fuentes. The client list: Ullrich, Basso, Sevilla, Mancebo, and teams Valencian Community and Liberty. The Tour Landis won that season. Three days later he jumped positive for testosterone. In 2007, Vinokourov tested positive for the Grande Boucle and Rasmussen, overall race leader, was set apart by having dodged two prior to the Tour doping controls your computer. And now a new pearl in the long necklace madness. King of the cycling world loses the crown. The world woke up shocked by the news that the International Cycling Union (UCI) decided to strip the American Lance Armstrong of his seven Tour titles in France and forbid compete for life. The council president, Pat McQuaid announced that the federation accepted the report of the United States Anti-Doping Agency on Armstrong. The decision allows organizers of the Tour officially remove the name of Armstrong’s book marks, canceling their consecutive wins from 1999 to 2005. Tour director Christian Prudhomme said failure to accept the ICU and in those years have not officially test winners. The decision is made ​​on Friday. Just in case: those who entered with a history behind Armstrong doping. McQuaid was very hard to convict around estaounidense rider “has no place in cycling, it is better to forget.” THE CRAZY RACE ARMSTRONG July 27 1999: Wins his first Tour de France. July 23, 2000: Wins his second Tour. In November, comes to light judicial investigation for doping during the Tour team. 2001: Conquer the Tour for the third year. He revealed that he had consulted the Italian doctor Michele Ferrari, implicated in the case by the use of EPO to beat the hour record.July 28, 2001: Win the Tour for the fourth time and is dismissed the case against him after undergoing urinalysis and blood in August. 2003: Wins Fifth Tour and divorces. 2004: Weeks before the start of the Tour, is accused of taking performance-enhancing drugs in the book by David Walsh and Pierre Ballester. 2004: Wins the sixth Tour France, becoming the winningest rider in the history of the gala event. 2004: His former assistant Mike Ardenson prohibited complaint found in his apartment and helped him escape Unannounced substances. April 18, 2005: Win seventh Tour and moves the world to retire. 2005: scandal a month of being away, L’Equipe reports that new positive tests for EPO in six of Armstrong’s urine samples allegedly taken during the 1999 Tour. 2006: In May is exonerated by the UCI doping allegations in 1999 because the controls were not developed under sound scientific standards. September 9, 2008: Announces his return to professional cycling. 2010: Landis admits he doped when he ran in the US Postal Service, and accuses several former teammates, including Armstrong. 2011: In January, a Sports Illustrated article quotes Stephen Swart, Armstrong mate in 1995, to claim that the seven-time Tour champion was the instigator for the team doparan with EPO. 2011: In February, announced his retirement from cycling high competition. 2011: In May another bomb: his former teammate Hamilton said he and Armstrong took EPO Tours in 1999, 2000 and 2001. June 13, 2012: USADA files formal charges against Armstrong for doping (blood transfusions, EPO, testosterone and corticosteroids) and is suspended. July 10, 2012: USADA sanctions lifetime three former employees of Armstrong’s US Postal participate in a systematic doping system. August 23, 2012: USADA anticipates that it will suspend for life and taken away all the titles won since 1998.August 24, 2012: USADA suspends and perpetual disqualification from all competitions in who participated. October 22, 2012: The UCI becomes effective lifetime ban and takes the prize won seven Tours.

If you’re a cyclist, these are the best apps for your iPhone

Cycling is one of the most popular sports . Along with his art and is a relatively inexpensive sport to practice simplicity, since beyond the price of the bicycle and an accessory element is completely free, allows us to connect with nature, enjoy the scenery, I practice only or with friends and in addition has majorsignificant benefits in terms of health.

Whether its normal practice, or inserted into other sports such as triathlon fashion lately , and you’re a keen cyclist or fully dedicate yourself to compete, it is necessary firstly to follow the advice already givenhere , and Second, you register all your brands and the largest amount of data possible about your tour, to improve, to find new routes and ultimately be able to enjoy this sport.

For the latter, we present today is a collection of applications that you should have in your iPhone to go cycling.

Runtastic Road Bike PRO

Application Runtastic Road Bike PRO

The important family of applications on health, sport and fitness Runtastic This app promotion contains everything you need and can imagine on the cycling activity. We have detailed, interactive maps, GPS monitoring, record your route in real time to share it with friends, weather, speed measurement, detection, staging, etc. One thing to note is that we have maps offline , important detail if our paths and roads route travels through places without coverage.

App Store | Runtastic Road Bike (4,99 euros)

Velopal

Application Velopal

With Velopal we can collect all data related to our business as cyclists. From route, speed, ups and downs, or distance, to record all our activity from a calendar , allowing us an overview of it. It also includes some training, with which we can improve on the bike. In another vein, we may share information via social networks like Facebook and Twitter and use several applications at once without affecting its operation.

App Store | Velopal (Free)

Map My Ride+

Application Map My Ride +

Besides all the functions related to data collection found in other applications, Map My Ride + contains a number of important options. Lets count calories, track weight loss, and several other possibilities, relating to nutrition and food. We can also synchronize your application with devices known brands of watches and heart rate monitors , in order to have at our disposal data on the frequency or heart rate. It also emphasizes the possibility of knowing our business statistics in real time.

App Store | Map My Ride+ (2,69 euros)

Cycelemeter

Cyclemeter App

Cycelemeter is an application created and perfected for the cycling activity . Record number of data, save an unlimited number of workouts, provides statistics by days, weeks, months or years and can synchronize this data with iCloud, to be analyzed in other devices like the iPad. Among its options, we can turn out the headphones from the application, excluding downtime total count , or several voices to choose to listen to our real-time statistics.

App Store | Cycelemeter (Free)

Biological BikeBrain

Biological application BikeBrain

Biological BikeBrain is an application on the cycling activity, but that is mainly based on their ability to sync with other devices. Allows an extensive data collection, but without reaching the levels of some that we have already analyzed. In terms of timing, if it is the most remarkable , because it allows us to match more than one sensor of different bikes. Apart from this, you have interesting options such as on-screen to select a high contrast for better visualization of the data , and those relating to the customization which allows you to choose the data you want to see.

App Store | Biological BikeBrain (Gratis)


After analyzing these applications we can conclude that we have many and varied options to choose from , and for practice of a cycling amateur level, and where our paths are for conventional roads any application of these we can serve and convincing.

If we practice a more professional level cycling, or competing in sports such as triathlon, if we may need applications that we can demand more. In this case we would recommend Map My Ride + and Runtastic PRO Road Bike , but only specifically at cycling, Cyclemeter seems an excellent choice too.

Five essential books about cycling

Books about cycling and bikes are many, and fortunately more and more. This is just a selection of some of the most important titles of all time, volumes that explain why there are people who love this sport, that unravel the personality of some of its major figures or explain its murky secrets.
 - Books of Lince

Tim Krabbé, ‘The rider’. Books of Lince

• Tim Krabbé, ‘Cyclist’

Probably the best novel starring on wheels. The rider is based on personal experience of the author, one of the most recent times exitodos Dutch writers and, in turn, amateur racer. Narra from start to finish a race, the Tour de Mont Aigoual, in southern France, where Krabbé enter to win in 1977. In addition to reviewing the events that happen on the road with incredible precision and sensitivity, the book it is full of thoughts, memories and anecdotes, and is a huge tribute to the sport. Reading it is so recommended for cycling enthusiasts and for those who do not understand why people can withstand rain, intense heat and suffering on a bike.A true ode to the sport. More »
 - Culture Cycling

Laurent Fignon, ‘We were young and unconscious’.Culture Cycling

• Laurent Fignon, ‘We were young and unconscious’

Perhaps the best autobiography of a professional racer. And no wonder: a Fignon called him Professor hence its image (ponytail and glasses, something strange in the bunch) and by their intellectual inclinations, and had a well earned reputation for lacking outspoken.In this book, the winner of the Tour de France in 1983 and 1984 gives an overview of his time cycling, perhaps the last in which there was a certain innocence in this sport. Fignon recounts his brilliant start to the competition, clashes with legendary names like Hinault, Zoetemelk or Delgado, injuries and disappointments he suffered when he was supposed to reach its maximum level, and do not forget to remember the Tour 1989 , lost by eight seconds in front of Greg LeMond in the last stage against the clock. In the pages were young and unaware wild parties after the races, panoramic views over the murkier side of cycling and eventually widespread doping swept his generation of the top of the rankings are also strained. More »

 - HarperSport

John Green, ‘The fault in our stars pdf’. HarperSport

• John Green, ‘The fault in our stars pdf

Available currently only in English, this The fault in our stars pdf book of British journalist Richard Moore is magnetic, more than a biography to use. It is as strange as its protagonist, Robert Millar Scottish climber in the eighties, King of the Mountain Tour and the most successful until the arrival of the current British cyclist Cavendish or Wiggins . Distant, no friend of compromise, vegetarian in a world of carnivores, almost nobody in the squad know much about Millar. When he retired, he still knew less of him practically lives in some unknown place held by the public and closely guarded by his few acquaintances. In fact, the best thing about this book are the adventures of Moore in his fruitless search of the retired cyclist, a character. More »

 - Books of the KO

Ander Izaguirre, ‘Lead in pockets’. Books KO

• Ander Izaguirre, ‘Lead in pockets’

The Tour de France is the biggest cycling race in the world, which gets more media coverage and one of the toughest. This volume presents a fine sense of humor the best stories that generated the French round along its hundred editions: the mad and desperate running in appalling conditions in the early days of the murkyLance Armstrong , no Izaguirre anecdote does not register an indispensable book.More »

 -

David Millar, ‘Cycling in the dark’.

• David Millar, ‘Cycling in the dark’

More than a book, a confession and exorcism. David Millar, today one of the oldest active professional riders, experienced firsthand the hardest time of doping in cycling at the beginning of this century. In Pedalenado in darkness tells how he started in the fascination of this sport, and how it was slowly falling into the vicious circle of professionalism in not winning means staying out of equipment and economic privileges. After starting his career so brilliant, even to wear the yellow jersey of the Tour, Millar comes a time when you are stuck. Although at first it’s totally contrary to doping, resolves that in a squad where ninety percent of the runners turn to illegal substances, he has no other you take them if you want to continue succeeding. The book recounts his dalliances with drugs that produce sports performance and also his downfall, when he was arrested along with some of his team for using illegal stimulants. And also has its revival, which has been leading in recent times the Slipstream team, leading in the race and totally clean. More »